The Role of Art in The Cultural Life of The Mendes in Sierra Leone

The Mende ethnic society is located in the South Western part of Sierra Leone. The main occupation there is farming. The Mendes have organized themselves into kingdoms and autonomous villages and towns ruled by chiefs. The chiefs' exercised limited power because the secret societies there exercise greater authority over the political and social life of the people. The Mendes believed in God as the creator. They practiced magic and also believed in ancestors, animism, sorcery, and witchcraft.

The Mendes engaged in the production of various works of art. The visual art forms include sculpture, jewelry, body arts and textiles. The sculptural works include the Bundu masks, Sowie masks, Minsereh figures, and statuettes. The body arts included body painting, marks, and coiffure with various hairstyles. They engaged in weaving while the women spun the cotton threads, the men wove the fabrics on looms. They also engaged in verbal arts such as songs, dance, poetry, and storytelling. '

The Bundu masks and its parts refer to ideals of female beauty, morality, and behavior. It has a high broad forehead signifies wisdom and success. The neck ridges are signs of beauty, good health, and prosperity. It also symbolizes a moth chrysalis, the transformative stage in a butterfly's life from a worm to a flying creature that is similar to a young woman's initiation into womanhood. It also has an intricately woven or plaited hair that is the essence of harmony and order found in an ideal Mende household. A small closed mouth and downcast eyes indicate the silent and serious facial expression expected of new initiates. The surface of the mask is coated with a glistering black substance as a form of finishing. The masks symbolize the adult women's roles as wives, mothers, providers for the family, and keepers of medicine for use within the Sande association and the Mende association as a whole.

The Mendes also produced the Nomoli or Pomdo stone carvings, carved out of soapstone. The Mendes believe that the stones are the representations of the people who lived in the region before they came to the area and the people have a ceremony around the stones where they treat them as former chiefs and kings of the region.

These marvelous artistic creations were essential in undertaking the everyday life activities of the people. For example, the women wore the Bundu mask together with a costume of black raffia during the initiation rites of the females. The masks conceal them from the audience attending the performance. The women leaders who wear these masks dance to a song from drums during the initiation ceremony. They serve as priestesses and judges during the three years of the training. They serve as teachers and mentors helping the young girls with their transformation into educated and marriageable women. These masks are not discarded, but rather they are repaired and reused after each initiation ceremony. Also, the Nomoli figures were used for ancestral veneration. The Minsereh figures are used by the women prophetesses for healing and divination.

Therefore, the culture of the Mendes was cleverly and skillfully portrayed using the various forms of art. This shows that art is very paramount in the development of humans and as such is a powerful vehicle for unveiling the cultural life of ethnic societies and nations.



Article Source

Great Hair With Roffler Hair Care Products For Men

Roffler has been styling men’s hair for over 50 years. They have signature styles with a classic edge. They are the number one provider of hair care products for men and have been the leader in quality for decades.

The company was started by Edmond Roffler in 1958 after studying the European hair care and design. He brought it to the States and translated it to the American market for sale with clean fragrances and strong products. In the 1960s, they opened a barber college so that these techniques could be brought to men everywhere, and it is still one of the best barber colleges in the world.

These make men look good and gives the best in cutting edge techniques, which makes them so popular with men. You have a product that is easy to use and gives the results you want so you look good, smell great and have fantastic hair. This is good for men of all ages, hair types and styles to always look your best.

They have formulated the products with science to make sure that all hair types can be easily managed. From thick and curly to thin, these can make your hair feel great. They use the best ingredients in the world, and keep the line up to date so that they always offer the best products.

There are shampoos for thickening, dandruff control and color treated to help the hair look natural for longer. One will help greying and blond hair not turn yellow and keep the strands clear and crisp. Conditioners are meant for daily use and have them for normal, dyed and deep condition for the most damaged of hair. As a system, this keeps hair manageable and feeling good.

When you style your hair, you can us gels, glues, lotions, mousse and find everything else to give you the hairstyle that you want. The formulas are non-drying so that it leaves hair silky without any of the flakes when the product drys. You can style your hair with any product that you want, and have the comfort knowing that it will hold and keep your hair looking good all day.

You can find Roffler online, at their college and in fine barber shops everywhere. You can have the hair you want with this hair care line as it gives you a compete system for great looking hair that you can use everyday for the look you want.



Article Source